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Against All Odds is a video
series teaching introductory statistics distributed by Annenberg/CPB
http://www.learner.org. Most Against
All Odds programs are organized as
a series of vignettes plus a short introduction and
conclusion. Each vignette deals with a particular
practical application. This guide gives the duration in
minutes of each vignette and identifies the area of
application and the statistical methods introduced in
each one. Programs are in most cases 27 minutes long, of
which the first two minutes is credits and preview. Keywords describing the applied context are given in italics. Keywords describing the statistical concepts explicitly introduced are in roman. I made these timings in 1991 while preparing to teach an introductory biostatistics subject at the University of Queensland. In most lectures I used an 8-10 minute segment of video comprising one or two vignettes. The timings were essential for planning each lecture. |
0 | - | 1 | ||
1 | - | 4 | Introduction: Creativity of childrens' drawings etc | |
4 | - | 14 | Use of statistics in business decisions: Domino's Pizza | |
14 | - | 17 | Describing data | |
17 | - | 22 | Producing data | |
22 | - | 26 | Conclusions from data | |
26 | - | 27 | Conclusion |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 4 | The power of visual display: map of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow from Tufte's book | |
4 | - | 14 | Predicting lightning: histogram, symmetry, outliers. Heights of woman undergraduates | |
14 | - | 21 | TV programming: skew distributions | |
21 | - | 22 | Rush hour traffic: choosing bin sizes | |
22 | - | 27 | Health care costs and diagnosis related groups: spread, stemleaf plots, back to back stemleaf |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 16 | Earnings: median (US), men vs women (Colorado), mean, quartiles, 5 number summary | |
16 | - | 21 | Calories in hot dogs: boxplots, interquartile range | |
21 | - | 27 | Urine samples: tunes, standard deviation, variance | |
27 | - | 28 | Conclusion |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction with building blocks | |
3 | - | 11 | Demand for social security in 2030: population distributions now and in 50 years, density curves | |
11 | - | 14 | Home video: normal is everywhere | |
14 | - | 16 | Finding mu and sigma on the normal density curve | |
16 | - | 20 | Beanstalk club and women's heights: standard deviation as a measuring stick, 68-95-99.7 rule | |
20 | - | 27 | Baseball and decreasing batting averages: standardized scores |
0 | - | 2 | ||
3 | - | 7 | Women's heights, mother and daughter heights: standard normal z = (x-µ)/sigma, proportion above and below | |
7 | - | 14 | NO_X emissions of GM cars: calculate proportion above | |
14 | - | 20 | Blood cholesterol: calculate proportion between | |
20 | - | 24 | Head sizes of army recruits: percentiles x=µ+z\sigma | |
24 | - | 27 | Women's heights, CO_2, NO_X: quantile plot |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 6 | Commuting times: control chart | |
6 | - | 10 | Body cycle: seasonal pattern | |
10 | - | 12 | Ozone: trend | |
12 | - | 15 | Running times: running medians | |
15 | - | 18 | Surprise: average of time series for pattern | |
18 | - | 26 | Stockmarket: average to reduce variance, existence of cycles | |
26 | - | 27 | Significance |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction | |
3 | - | 10 | Sarah's growth deficiency: piecewise linear growth | |
10 | - | 14 | Ticket sales: a+bx formula, residuals | |
14 | - | 20 | Gipsy moths: exponential growth | |
20 | - | 23 | The courtier & the King: geometric series | |
23 | - | 24 | Compound interest: | |
24 | - | 27 | Crude oil: log-transformation, residuals |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction | |
3 | - | 9 | Manatees: scatterplot, response, explanatory variable, cases, positive association, negative association, linear association, outliers | |
9 | - | 11 | Flouride in drinking water: colour for categorical variable in scatterplot | |
11 | - | 15 | Draft lottery: median trace, least squares regression | |
15 | - | 25 | Obesity: least squares calculations | |
25 | - | 27 | Wages: beware extrapolation, outliers, influence, lurking variables |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 5 | Cakes: correlation | |
5 | - | 16 | Twins: genetics vs environment, correlation calculations, curvilinear relationship | |
16 | - | 21 | Baseball home runs: r^2 is fraction of variance explained | |
21 | - | 27 | Inequality in education: causation |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Chesapeake Bay, introduction | |
3 | - | 16 | Abundance of life in Chesapeake Bay sediments: regression, seasonal trend | |
16 | - | 17 | Forgery: Chernoff faces | |
17 | - | 18 | Cars: trees, stars | |
18 | - | 28 | Voice synthesis, epicentres of earthquakes: point clouds, brushing, rotating at Bell Communications |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction | |
3 | - | 5 | Icecream and drownings, 55mph limit and accidents, Louisiana land loss: association isn't causation | |
5 | - | 12 | Admission at City University: 2x2 table, lurking variable, correlation for quantitative variables vs table for categorical variables, Simpson's paradox | |
12 | - | 27 | Smoking and lung cancer: establishing causation when an experiment isn't possible |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction, granpa and whisky: producing data | |
3 | - | 8 | Lobsters: observation | |
8 | - | 15 | Physicians' aspirin study: randomization, placebo, double-blind | |
15 | - | 16 | Ribaviron | |
16 | - | 19 | Random numbers to select sample | |
19 | - | 25 | Domestic violence: random assignment | |
25 | - | 26 | Dr Confound: poor design | |
26 | - | 27 | Conclusion: random assignment, controlled experiments |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 5 | Washing: blocking | |
5 | - | 13 | Strawberries: randomized complete block | |
13 | - | 21 | Census. Hite Report. | |
21 | - | 27 | Frito-Lay potato crisps: sampling |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 5 | Day care: stratified survey | |
5 | - | 9 | Fishing: stratified survey | |
9 | - | 10 | Roosevelt election: Gallup poll, bias | |
10 | - | 12 | Street survey: biased questioning | |
12 | - | 22 | NORC General Social Survey: survey design, multistage sample | |
22 | - | 28 | Sampling bias: precision vs sample size |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 5 | Dice, introduction | |
5 | - | 8 | Car accidents | |
8 | - | 10 | Assessing risk | |
10 | - | 11 | Tossing coin | |
11 | - | 15 | Persi Diaconis: the meaning of probability | |
15 | - | 18 | Tossing coins: sample space. Dice: equal probabilities | |
18 | - | 28 | New York traffic: simulation, addition rule |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 4 | Independence, introduction: sex of children, `Stand and Deliver' movie | |
4 | - | 13 | Challenger disaster: multiplication rule, O-rings not independent | |
13 | - | 14 | Multiplication and addition rules | |
14 | - | 19 | Random variables, toss of 4 coins. Continuous vs discrete: weight of babies etc. Basketball scores: probability histogram. Continuous density: time. | |
19 | - | 25 | Earthquakes: 20yr intervals, normal | |
25 | - | 27 | Ice cubes in coke: mean and stdev of discrete rv |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 4 | Insurance: law of large numbers | |
4 | - | 7 | Basketball: successive throws are independent | |
7 | - | 10 | Rates of return from stocks and treasury bonds: rules for means | |
10 | - | 16 | College class investment: diversification less variable, rules for variances | |
16 | - | 17 | The binomial distribution: independent trials | |
17 | - | 25 | Sickle cell anemia: recessive genetic inheritance, mean and variance of binomial | |
25 | - | 27 | Quincox: normal approximation for binomial, n large or p near 0.5 |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 16 | Casinos: expected value, variance of single bet, Central Limit Theorem for sample mean, \sigma/\sqrt{n} | |
16 | - | 23 | Frito-Lay potato crisps: SPC, control charts | |
23 | - | 27 | Deming |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 4 | Blood pressure: introduction | |
3 | - | 7 | Bush vs Dukakis polls: margin of error | |
7 | - | 12 | Blood pressure: CI for normal mean | |
12 | - | 18 | Battery life: 95% CI, \bar x\pm z^*\sigma/\sqrt n | |
18 | - | 27 | Primates for experiments: determining sample size |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 4 | Seat belts: null and alternative hypotheses | |
4 | - | 19 | Poem by Shakespeare?: Thisted, z={\bar x-µ}\over{\sigma/\sqrt n} | |
19 | - | 28 | FBI discrimination case |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 4 | Introduction, \sigma not known, s | |
4 | - | 6 | Gosset: t-distribution, degrees of freedom, \bar x\pm t\frac{s}{\sqrt n}, \frac{\bar x-µ}{s/\sqrt n} | |
6 | - | 13 | National Institute of Standards and PCBs: t-distribution, confidence interval, t^* | |
13 | - | 21 | Nutra-Sweet: paired comparisons, paired t-test | |
21 | - | 27 | Autism and Vineland Adaptive Scores: CI for difference between living and social scores |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction | |
3 | - | 15 | Option welfare program: 2 sample t-statistic, conservative for unequal variances, confidence interval | |
15 | - | 21 | Bouncing foam: 2 sample t test | |
21 | - | 28 | Coaching effectiveness: confidence interval |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction: Woburn water contamination | |
3 | - | 12 | Unemployment rate: µ_{\hat p}, \sigma_{\hat p}, confidence interval, test | |
12 | - | 20 | Woburn water contamination: confidence interval for p_1-p_2 | |
20 | - | 28 | Salem witch trials: hypothesis test of p_1-p_2=0 |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Introduction | |
3 | - | 4 | Veteran's study: outcomes in 3 x 2 table | |
4 | - | 13 | Dental anthropology: chi-square statistic | |
13 | - | 22 | Breast cancer and age bias: age x cancer, chi-square distribution | |
22 | - | 27 | Mendel's pea experiment: subjectivity in classification |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 3 | Astronomy, introduction: least squares regression, correlation | |
3 | - | 20 | Hubble 100in telescope and Hubble constant: simple linear regression, s^2, confidence interval for slope | |
20 | - | 27 | Birth defects and ultrasound: confidence interval for fitted value, prediction interval |
0 | - | 2 | ||
2 | - | 27 | Aids and AZT: statistical thinking discussed in general terms - data collection, analysis, more data collection - but no methods given explicitly |
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