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Energy Requirements Running, Walking and Cycling

Keywords: randomized block


An experiment is conducted to compare the energy requirements of three physical activities: running, walking and bicycle riding. Eight subjects are asked to run, walk and bicycle a measured distance, and the number of kilocalories expended per kilometre is determined for each subject during each activity. The activities are run in random order with time for recovery between activities. Each activity was monitored exactly once for each individual.


Data File (tab-delimited text)


Milton, J. S. (1992). Statistical Methods in the Biological and Health Sciences 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, pages 316-319.


Well behaved data with very significant differences between treatments (the three treatments do not overlap in response values). Invented data?

General Linear Model

Factor   Levels Values
Subject       8     1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8
Activity      3 Running Walking Cycling
Analysis of Variance for Energy  
Source     DF     Seq SS     Adj SS     Adj MS       F      P
Subject     7    0.55333    0.55333    0.07905    2.86  0.045
Activity    2    4.41333    4.41333    2.20667   79.90  0.000
Error      14    0.38667    0.38667    0.02762
Total      23    5.35333  
Unusual Observations for Energy  
Obs    Energy       Fit   StDev Fit  Residual   St Resid
  5   1.60000   1.31667     0.10728   0.28333      2.23R 



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